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Questions 51 to 55 are based on the following passage.
Popping food into the microwave for a couple of minutes may seem utterly harmless, and Europe's stock of these quick-cooking ovens emit as much carbon as nearly 7million cars, a new study has found, and the problem is growing. With costs falling and kitchen appliances becoming "status" users, owners are throwing many microwave after an average of eight years. This is pushing sales of new microwave which are expected to reach 135 million annually in the EU by the end of the decade.
A study by the University of Manchester worked out the emissions of carbon dioxide -- the main greenhouse gas responsible for climate change -- at every stage of microwaves, from manufacture to waste disposal. "It is electricity consumption by microwaves that has the biggest impact on the environment," say the authors, who also calculate that the emissions from using 19 microwaves over a year are the same as those from a car. According to the same study, efforts to reduce consumption should focus on improving consumer awareness and behaviour to use appliances more efficiently. For example, electricity consumption by microwaves can be reduced by adjusting the time of cooking to the type of food."
However, David Reay, professor of carbon management argues that, although microwaves use a great deal of enery, their emissions are minor compared to those from cars. In the UK alone and these emit way more than all the emissions from microwaves in the EU. Backing this up, recent data show that passenger cars in the UK emitted 69m tonnes of CO2 in 2015. This is 10 times the amount this new microwave oven study estimates for annual emissions for all the microwave ovens in the whole of the EU." further, the energy used by microwaves is lower than any other form of cooking. Among common kitchen appliances used for cooking, microwaves are the most energy efficient, followed by a stove and finally a standard oven. Thus, rising microwave sales could be seen as a positive thing.
51. What is the finding of the new study?
A) Quick-cooking microwave ovens have become more popular.
B) The frequent use of microwaves may do harm to our health.
C) CO2 emissions constitute a major threat to the environment.
D) The use of microwaves emits more CO2 than people think.
52. Why are the sales of microwaves expected to rise?
A) They are becoming more afrdabla.
B) They have a shorter life cycle than other appliances.
C) They are gtting much easier to operate.
D) They take less tine to cook than other ppliaces.
53. What recommendation does the study by the University of Manchester make?
A) Cooking food of dfferent varieties.
B) Improving microwave users' habits.
C) Eating less to cut energy consumption.
D) Using microwave ovens less frequently.
54. What does Professor David Reay try to argue?
A) There are far more emissions from cars than from microwaves.
B) People should be persuaded into using passenger cars less often.
C) The UK produces less CO2 than many other countries in the EU.
D) More data are needed to show whether microwaves are harmful.
55. What does Professor David Reay think of the use of microwaves?
A) It will become less popular in the coming decades.
B) It makes everyday cooking much more convenient.
C) It plays a positive role in envronmental protection.
D) It consumes more power than conventional cooking.
Questions 46 to 50 are based on the following passage.
According to the majority of Americans, women are every bit as capable of being good political leaders as men. The same can be said of their ability to dominate the corporate boardroom. And according to a new Pew Research Center survey on women and leadership, most Americans find women indistinguishable from men on key leadership traits such as intelligence and capacity for innovation, with many saying they're stronger than men in terms of being passionate and organized leaders.
So why, then, are women in short supply at the top of government and business in the United States? According to the public, at least, it's not that they lack toughness, management talent or proper skill sets.
It’s also not all about work-life balance. Although economic research and previous survey findings have shown that career interruptions related to motherhood may make it harder for women to advance in their careers and compete for top executive jobs, relatively few adults in the recent survey point to this as a key barrier for women seeking leadership roles. Only about one-in-five say women's family responsibilities are a major reason why there aren't more females in top leadership positions in business and politics.
Instead, topping the list of reasons, about four-in-ten Americans point to a double standard for women seeking to climb to the highest levels of either politics or business, where they have to do more than their male counterparts to prove themselves. Similar shares say the electorate （选民）and corporate America are just not ready to put more women in top leadership positions.
As a result, the public is divided about whether the imbalance in corporate America will change in the foreseeable future, even though women have made major advances in the workplace. While 53% believe men will continue to hold more top executive positions in business in the future, 44% say it's only a matter of time before as many women are in top executive positions as men. Americans are less doubtful when it comes to politics: 73% expect to see a female president in their lifetime.
46.What do most Americans think of women leaders according to a new Pew Research Center survey?
A) They have to do more to distinguish themselves.
B) They have to strive harder to win their positions.
C) They are stronger than men in terms of willpower.
D) They are just as intelligent and innovative as men.
47.What do we learn from previous survey findings about women seeking leadership roles?
A) They have unconquerable difficulties on their way to success.
B) They are lacking in confidence when competing with men.
C) Their failures may have something to do with family duties.
D) Relatively few are hindered in their career advancement.
48.What is the primary factor keeping women from taking top leadership positions according to the recent survey?
A) Personality traits.
B) Gender bias.
C) Family responsibilities.
D) Lack of vacancies.
49.What does the passage say about corporate America in the near future?
A) More and more women will sit in the boardroom.
B) Gender imbalance in leadership is likely to change.
C) The public is undecided about whether women will make good leaders.
D) People have opposing opinions as to whether it will have more women leaders.
50.What do most Americans expect to see soon on America's political stage?
A) A woman in the highest position of government.
B) More and more women actively engaged in politics.
C) A majority of women voting for a female president.
D) As many women in top government positions as men.
Questions 51 to 55 are based on the following passage.
People have grown taller over the last century, with South Korean women shooting up by more than 20cm on average, and Iranian men gaining 16.5cm. A global study looked at the average height of 18-year-olds in 200 countries between 1914 and 2014.
The results reveal that while Swedes were the tallest people in the world in 1914, Dutch men have risen from 12th place to claim top spot with an average height of 182.5cm. Latvian women, meanwhile, rose from 28th place in 1914 to become the tallest in the world a century later, with an average height of 169.8cm.
James Bentham, a co-author of the research from Imperial College, London, says the global trend is likely to be due primarily to improvements in nutrition and healthcare. "An individual's genetics has a big influence on their height, but once you average over whole populations, genetics plays e less key role," he added.
A little extra height brings a number of advantages, says Elio Riboli of Imperial College. "Being taller is associated with longer life expectancy," he said. "This is largely due to a lower risk of dying of cardiovascular (心血管的）disease among taller people."
But while height has increased around the world, the trend in many countries of north and sub-Saharan Africa causes concern, says Riboli. While height increased in Uganda and Niger during the early 20th century, the trend has reversed in recent years, with height decreasing among 18-year-olds.
"One reason for these decreases in height is the economic situation in the 1980s," said Alexander Moradi of the University of Sussex. The nutritional and health crises that followed the policy of structural adjustment, he says, led to many children and teenagers failing to reach their full potential in terms of height.
Bentham believes the global trend of increasing height has important implications. "How tall we are now is strongly influenced by the environment we grew up in," he said. "If we give children the best possible start in life now, they will be healthier and more productive for decades to come."
51.What does the global study tell us about people's height in the last hundred years?
A) There is a remarkable difference across continents.
B) There has been a marked increase in most countries.
C) The increase in people's height has been quickening.
D) The increase in women's height is bigger than in men's.
52.What does James Bentham say about genetics in the increase of people's height?
A) It counts less than generally thought.
B) It outweighs nutrition and healthcare.
C) It impacts more on an individual than on a population.
D) It plays a more significant role in females than in males.
53.What does Elio Riboli say about taller people?
A) They tend to live longer.
B) They enjoy an easier life.
C) They generally risk fewer fatal diseases.
D) They have greater expectations in life.
54.What do we learn about 18-year-olds in Uganda and Niger?
A) They grow up slower than their peers in other countries.
B) They are actually shorter than their earlier generations.
C) They find it hard to bring their potential into full play.
D) They have experienced many changes of government.
55.What does James Bentham suggest we do?
A) Watch closely the global trend in children's development.
B) Make sure that our children grow up to their full height.
C) Try every means possible to improve our environment.
D) Ensure our children grow up in an ideal environment.
Questions 46 to 50 are based on the following passage.
For thousands of years, people have known that the best way to understand a concept is to explain it to someone else. "While we teach, we learn," said Roman philosopher Seneca. Now scientists are bringing this ancient wisdom up-to-date. They're documenting why teaching is such a fruitful way to learn, and designing innovative ways for young people to engage in instruction.
Researchers have found that students who sign up to tutor others work harder to understand the material, recall it more accurately and apply it more effectively. Student teachers score higher on tests than pupils who're learning only for their own sake. But how can children, still learning themselves, teach others? One answer: They can tutor younger kids. Some studies have found that first-born children are more intelligent than their later-born siblings (兄弟姐妹). This suggests their higher IQs result from the time they spend teaching their siblings. Now educators are experimenting with ways to apply this model to academic subjects. They engage college undergraduates to teach computer science to high school students, who in turn instruct middle school students on the topic.
But the most cutting-edge tool under development is the "teachable agent"—a computerized character who learns, tries, makes mistakes and asks questions just like a real-world pupil. Computer scientists have created an animated (动画的) figure called Betty's Brain, who has been "taught" about environmental science by hundreds of middle school students. Student teachers are motivated to help Betty master certain materials. While preparing to teach, they organize their knowledge and improve their own understanding. And as they explain the information to it, they identify problems in their own thinking.
Feedback from the teachable agents further enhances the tutors' learning. The agents' questions compel student tutors to think and explain the materials in different ways, and watching the agent solve problems allows them to see their knowledge put into action.
Above all, it's the emotions one experiences in teaching that facilitate learning. Student tutors feel upset when their teachable agents fail, but happy when these virtual pupils succeed as they derive pride and satisfaction from someone else's accomplishment.
46. What are researchers rediscovering through their studies?
A.Seneca's thinking is still applicable today.
B.Better learners will become better teachers.
C.Human intelligence tends to grow with age.
D.Philosophical thinking improves instruction.
47. What do we learn about Betty's Brain?
A.It is a character in a popular animation.
B.It is a teaching tool under development.
C.It is a cutting-edge app in digital games.
D.It is a tutor for computer science students.
48. How does teaching others benefit student tutors?
A.It makes them aware of what they are strong at.
B.It motivates them to try novel ways of teaching.
C.It helps them learn their academic subjects better.
D.It enables them to better understand their teachers.
49. What do students do to teach their teachable agents?
A.They motivate them to think independently.
B.They ask them to design their own questions.
C.They encourage them to give prompt feedback.
D.They use various ways to explain the materials.
50. What is the key factor that eases student tutors' learning?
A.Their sense of responsibility.
B.Their emotional involvement.
C.The learning strategy acquired.
D.The teaching experience gained.
Questions 51 to 55 are based on the following passage.
A new batch of young women—members of the so-called Millennial (千禧的) generation—has been entering the workforce for the past decade. At the starting line of their careers, they are better educated than their mothers and grandmothers had been—or than their young male counterparts are now. But when they look ahead, they see roadblocks to their success. They believe that women are paid less than men for doing the same job. They think it's easier for men to get top executive jobs than it is for them. And they assume that if and when they have children, it will be even harder for them to advance in their careers.
While the public sees greater workplace equality between men and women now than it did 20-30 years ago, most believe more change is needed. Among Millennial women, 75% say this country needs to continue making changes to achieve gender equality in the workplace, compared with 57% of Millennial men. Even so, relatively few young women (15%) say they have been discriminated against at work because of their gender.
As Millennial women come of age they share many of the same views and values about work as their male counterparts. They want jobs that provide security and flexibility, and they place relatively little importance on high pay. At the same time, however, young working women are less likely than men to aim at top management jobs: 34% say they're not interested in becoming a boss or top manager; only 24% of young men say the same. The gender gap on this question is even wider among working adults in their 30s and 40s, when many women face the trade-offs that go with work and motherhood.
These findings are based on a new Pew Research Center survey of 2,002 adults, including 810 Millennials (ages 18-32), conducted Oct. 7-27, 2013. The survey finds that, in spite of the dramatic gains women have made in educational attainment and labor force participation in recent decades, young women view this as a man's world—just as middle-aged and older women do.
51.What do we learn from the first paragraph about Millennial women starting their careers?
A.They can get ahead only by striving harder.
B.They expect to succeed just like Millennial men.
C.They are generally quite optimistic about their future.
D.They are better educated than their male counterparts.
52.How do most Millennial women feel about their treatment in the workplace?
A.They are the target of discrimination.
B.They find it satisfactory on the whole.
C.They think it needs further improving.
D.They find their complaints ignored.
53.What do Millennial women value most when coming of age?
A.A sense of accomplishment.
B.Job stability and flexibility.
C.Rewards and promotions.
D.Joy derived from work.
54.What are women in their 30s and 40s concerned about?
A.The welfare of their children.
B.The narrowing of the gender gap.
C.The fulfillment of their dreams in life.
D.The balance between work and family.
55.What conclusion can be drawn about Millennial women from the 2013 survey?
A.They still view this world as one dominated by males.
B.They account for half the workforce in the job market.
C.They see the world differently from older generations.
D.They do better in work than their male counterparts.